Select Page

In part two of Sail boat rig checks we run through some useful rig maintenance tips and then finish with a brief look at what a professional rig check involves.

A big part of rig maintenance is about keeping corrosion and metal fatigue at bay. This means understanding why the marine environment shows no mercy to the rig’s components and what you can do to protect them.

Note:

  • Stainless steel rigging should not be left in contact with an aluminium mast when it is unstepped in order to avoid galvanic corrosion.
  • Routine cleaning of stainless steel components should be done throughout the year.

Mast, Spreaders, Rigging

Standing rigging

  • As well as rinsing with fresh water to remove salt, it is a good idea to clean everything with a cloth and polish out any surface rust spots – ideally when the boat is ashore.
  • Any traces of rust should be removed and the area inspected for hairline cracks or signs of damage to the metal. Use stainless steel cleaners only as some cleaners contain chlorine which destroys stainless steel. Don’t use wire wool as this can leave tiny particles in the rigging which will rust.
  • If corrosion has gone deep and cannot be removed by polishing, the part should be replaced.
  • Clean the rigging screw threads using a degreasing solvent – an old toothbrush is ideal for this. Dry the threads and then lubricate with rigging screw oil.
  • If a single strand of wire has failed, then the shroud or stay should be replaced with a new one. It is good practice to replace wires in pairs, so for example if one cap shroud has failed, then the opposite one must be replaced as well.
  • Don’t wrap rigging terminals in tape as this deprives stainless steel of oxygen and causes corrosion.

Mast and boom – anodized

  • Rinse the mast and boom with fresh water, then wash with liquid detergent. Rinse off thoroughly with fresh water to remove all traces of saltwater and detergent, not forgetting the inside of the mast as well.
  • Flush the sail track and slides to remove salt crystals and lubricate them with track lubricant – some people use vaseline.
  • Remove and grease the screws of the boom outboard end-fitting.
  • Coat all aluminium surfaces and cast metal parts with paraffin oil or wax to seal and preserve the surfaces.

Mast and boom – painted

  • Carry out the same maintenance as with an anodized mast and boom.
  • Use coatings which are suitable for use on aluminium and follow the manufacturer’s instructions.
  • If you drill holes into a painted mast, there is a high probability that corrosion will spread under the paint which will cause To prevent this happening ensure that fittings are properly bedded down onto the mast with mastic type sealant. If there are an exposed edges, these must be protected with a suitable primer and top-coat.

Masthead

  • Clean and inspect the masthead sheaves. Check they run freely and that the bearings are in good order. Then lubricate them with a light machine oil.
  • If they are badly worn then replace them. Also check the retaining pins are secure.

Roller furler, rigging, furling foresail

Roller-furling maintenance

Lubricate roller-furling gear according to the manufacturer’s recommendations. Maintenance is normally straightforward, even when a furler is rigged on the boat:

  • Wash and rinse the furling system with fresh water and a mild detergent to remove dirt and salt.
  • Polish the luff extrusions with silicon-free polish or wax. This prevents dirt from staining the sail.
  • Clean and polish any stainless steel components.
  • Halyard leads should be inspected for wear and any sharp edges should be filed smooth. Halyard leads need to be replaced when wear reaches 50%.
  • The bearing assemblies need to be lubricated with grease. Getting access to these is normally possible via greasing holes.
  • Grease the halyard swivel which may have an upper and lower bearing.

Wooden masts and booms

It is no secret that varnished wooden spars require a lot of maintenance. Even the best quality varnishes are unlikely to last two seasons given their exposure to the sun and ultraviolet, especially in hotter climates. For this reason, some wooden spars are painted on the upward facing surfaces, particularly spreaders. In some cases the whole mast may be painted. While a painted mast may not be as attractive to look at, it can last up to 5 years before needing to be repainted.

As soon as varnish begins to crack and peel, then moisture can penetrate the wood beneath leaving a telltale dark stain which unless dealt with can quickly cause rot to develop.

Tips:

  • Little and often maintenance is the best way to look after wooden masts.
  • Repair any rot damage as soon as it appears.
  • Rub back old varnish and apply new coatings where necessary.

Wooden mast repairs

Most wooden masts and booms are usually hollow and typically are constructed in a series of sections that are connected together by scarf joints to form the finished box shaped spar. A scarf joint comprises two tapered pieces of wood that are glued together.

Being hollow, wooden spars are susceptible to rot from both outside and inside. The outside is visible of course and can be easily checked, but the inside is hidden from view and if the wood begins to rot from the inside then this can be very bad news. Consequently all hollow wooden spars need to be treated internally to protect them from rot. This means gaining access periodically and treating the insides with rot proofing fluid.

Major repairs to a spar damaged by rot

An area of damaged or rotten spar can be repaired but it is usually a specialist job unless the repair is very minor. You need excellent woodworking skills and the know-how to make tight fitting scarf joints, access to the best quality timber, a large workshop with good supports for the mast while it is being repaired and plenty of clamps to grip the repaired area as it glues.

Running rigging

As soon as the boat is ashore in the boatyard one of the first things I do is remove most of the running rigging and take it home for cleaning, then dry and store it for the winter. While rinsing blocks and lines in fresh water regularly during the sailing season is a good idea, if they are left unattended dirt and salt easily gets ingrained into rope fibres and blocks, shortening their lifespan and making them unpleasant to use.

Mast, Rigging

How to wash ropes:

  • Before removing the standing rigging, I take photos of all of it in situ and especially which block goes where. Also label all the major components to remind you where everything goes when you rig the boat again at the beginning of the season. This saves a lot of head scratching.
  • Replace the halyards with mousing lines. I put all the ropes in an old sail bag and the blocks in a plastic box and then take them home.
  • Check all the halyard ends are properly sealed or whipped before cleaning them.
  • New rope should not be washed, a light scrubbing with a brush is ample.
  • Soak older ropes in warm water and a mild detergent for at least an hour. A bath or large, deep sink is best.
  • Heavily soiled ropes can be cleaned in a washing machine but care needs to be taken when doing this. Rope ends need to be whipped and stitched or fused to stop them from fraying. Ropes should be coiled tightly and any spliced shackles should be covered with old socks to protect the machine and ropes.
  • Put the ropes in mesh laundry bags or pillowcases, tying knots in the ends.
  • Use a mild detergent or fabric softener and a gentle cycle.
  • Leave rope to dry slowly and never use excessive heat as the core and sheath will shrink differently, causing the rope to be distorted and weakened.

Warning:

  • Do not use strong laundry detergents as marine ropes have coatings which protect them from uv radiation and abrasion. Do not use bleach as this significantly reduces a rope’s breaking strength.
  • Tests have shown that machine washing a rope is to be avoided as splices come undone and the core of double braided lines gets pulled out by the wash cycle action.

Maintenance of blocks

Blocks need the minimum of maintenance. Simply rinse in hot soapy water to remove salt and greasy deposits. If they remain stiff after cleaning then some light lubrication with WD-40 may help but shouldn’t be needed.

mast gooseneck

Professional rig inspection

Every five years or so, depending on usage and the mast manufacturer’s recommendations, a full professional rig inspection of a sail boat needs to be carried out.

A professional rig inspection will comprise a visual inspection, sometimes aided by ultrasound tools, dye penetration testing, or x-rays, which reveal surface flaws not visible to the naked eye. The full inspection will look for items such as cracks in rigging components, misalignment of stays and corrosion. A written report will record observations and any work carried out to help with future inspections.

Tip:

  • Keep a maintenance log of your boat’s rig. This should include details of inspections, replacement parts, wire sizes and expenditure so that at a glance you can be aware of what is likely to need doing and when and what the costs should be.

Top Ten Tips For Learning The ColRegs Boating Rules Of The Road

Colregs Boating Rules Of The Road Skippers struggle to learn and remember the ColRegs Yachtmaster and Day Skipper course...

An explanation of the IALA maritime buoyage systems – IALA A and IALA B

What are the differences between the two IALA buoyage systems, IALA Region A and IALA Region B, and where are they used?   As recently as the 1970s...

Understanding your boat’s compass

Article submitted by Mike Rossiter, Certificated Compass Adjuster. Since the magnetic compass was first used by the Chinese...

First Aid at Sea – strains and sprains

Strains and sprains respond well to rest and cooling. Wrap ice in a tea towel before applying. First Aid at Sea Strains and...

Man Overboard Drill

How to respond to crew overboard under sail • Keep the MOB in sight • Tack into the heave-to position, do not adjust the...

Pleasure craft safety equipment recommendations

Safety equipment is an important part of boat preparation and it is advisable for all pleasure craft skippers to check their vessel is...

Feeling anxious at sea

  Some people feel anxious at sea. Will they be seasick? What if they get caught in a violent storm? Could the boat...

A five day sailing cruise of the Solent, UK

Welcome to our virtual Solent sailing cruise – a five day sail in the south of England from Bosham Quay in Chichester...

Boating emergency – how to broadcast a MAYDAY emergency call

How to broadcast a MAYDAY emergency call   How to broadcast a MAYDAY emergency call if a vessel or person is in grave...

Getting a tow for your sail or power boat at sea or on inland waterways

FREE tips from the Safe Skipper App for iPhone/iPad/Android: Getting a tow for your sail or power boat Plan how to secure a...

Learn ColRegs: Traffic Separation Schemes

Learn ColRegs Rule 10: Traffic Separation Schemes. (c) A vessel shall, so far as practicable, avoid crossing traffic lanes...

Boating Rules of the Road – International ColRegs

    International ColRegs Rule 7: Risk of Collision Anyone who is responsible for a vessel at sea, from the...

Steel and Aluminium Hulls

The two metals used for hull construction are steel and aluminium. These are both very strong materials and will last a long time as long as they are cared for, which primarily means protecting steel boats from rust and aluminium boats from electrolytic action.

Hourly Checks when sailing or motoring

  Hourly Checks Get into the habit of carrying out these checks and both yourself, your crew and your boat will be...

How to tackle osmosis

Many owners of old GRP boats live in fear of osmosis, but what exactly is osmosis and what can be done about it? Osmosis comes about...

Antifouling for leisure boats – Part 4

Applying antifouling. Antifouling is best applied on a dry, calm day. It is best to apply the antifouling in the middle of the day to ensure the hull is dry and as warm as possible.

Essential Knots: Figure of eight

Essential Knots: Figure of eight Use: Stopper knot, prevents a rope from being pulled through a hole e.g. through a block or...

ColRegs Rule 14 – Head-on Situation

  ColRegs Rule 14: Head-on Situation (a) When two power-driven vessels are meeting on reciprocal or nearly reciprocal...

Dag Pike’s Boat Survey

We're really pleased to be working with Dag Pike on some great new apps for iPhone & Android. Here'a a bit more about the first app: Dag Pike's...

Rudders and steering systems – Part 1

Rudders and steering systems. A rudder is one of the most critical parts of a boat. Rudder failure is a common occurrence on neglected or overworked boats and a very unpleasant and potentially dangerous thing to happen when you are out at sea.

Peer to Peer yacht charter – How can you monetize your boat?

There is a growing trend in peer to peer yacht charter. How does it work? People already rent rooms, cars and bikes from one...

Understanding your mast and rigging

The rig of a sailing boat is put under huge stresses and strains so it is important for inspections of a yacht's spars and rigging to be...

Repairing a leaking hull-to-deck joint

If you suspect a hull-to-deck joint has failed, then being absolutely sure where the actual leak is occurring is of prime...

Essential Knots: Clove hitch

Essential Knots: Clove hitch Use: Tying a rope to posts, bollards, rings or a guardrail. Step 1. Make a turn around the object and lay...

VHF DSC radio – how best to communicate at sea

There are many ways to communicate with others at sea. What makes the VHF DSC radio the best form of short range...